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Literature With Web-Links

This page gives internet links, of the literature we refer to in the rest of our website.

Gout & Uric Acid

Brosh S, Boer P, Kupfer B, de Vries A, Sperling O. De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Excessive activity of the pathway in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. J Clin Invest. 1976;58(2):289–297, [PubMed]

Hershfield MS, Seegmiller JE. Gout and the regulation of purine biosynthesis. Horiz Biochem Biophys. 1976;2:134-62. Review, [PubMed]

Becker MA, Kim M. Regulation of purine synthesis de novo in human fibroblasts by purine nucleotides and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. J Biol Chem. 1987 Oct 25;262(30):14531-7, [PubMed]

Yamaoka T, Itakura M, Metabolism of purine nucleotides and the production of uric acid,  Nihon Rinsho. 1996 Dec;54(12):3188-94. Review. Japanese, [PubMed]

​Richette P, Bardin T. Gout. Lancet. 2010;375(9711):318–28. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


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Wu XW, Lee CC, Muzny DM, Caskey CT. Urate oxidase: primary structure and evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989;86:9412–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


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Mikuls TR, Farrar JT, Bilker WB, Fernandes S, Schumacher HR, Jr, Saag KG. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK General Practice Research Database 1990-1999. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64(2):267–72.[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Terkeltaub RA. Clinical practice. Gout. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1647–55. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(10):3136–41.[PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for gout. Part II: Management. Report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT) Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1312–24. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Terkeltaub R. Update on gout: new therapeutic strategies and options. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010;6(1):30–8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Singh H, Torralba KD. Therapeutic challenges in the management of gout in the elderly. Geriatrics. 2008;63(7):13–8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


De Leonardis F, Govoni M, Colina M, Bruschi M, Trotta F. Elderly-onset gout: a review. Rheumatol Int. 2007;28(1):1–6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Gout Related Conditions

Hurr C, Young CN. Neural Control of Non-vasomotor Organs in Hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2016;18(4):30. [NIH]

Abbott RD, Brand FN, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. Gout and coronary heart disease: the Framingham study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;41:237–42. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Grassi D, Ferri L, Desideri G, et al. Chronic hyperuricemia, uric acid deposit, and cardiovascular risk. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(13):2432–2438, [NIH]

Feig DI, Kang DH, Johnson RJ. Uric Acid and Cardiovascular Risk. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(17):1811–21. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Choi HK, Curhan G. Independent impact of gout on mortality and risk for coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2007;116:894–900. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Choi HK, Ford ES, Li C, Curhan G. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with gout: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57:109–15. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Krishnan E, Baker JF, Furst DE, Schumacher HR. Gout and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2688–96. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Krishnan E, Svendsen K, Neaton JD, Grandits G, Kuller LH MRFIT Research Group. Long-term cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged men with gout. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1104–10.[PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Johnson RJ, Kang DH, Feig D, et al. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension. 2003;41(6):1183–90. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Perlstein TS, Gumieniak O, Williams GH, et al. Uric acid and the development of hypertension: the normative aging study. Hypertension. 2006;48(6):1031–6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Syamala S, Li J, Shankar A. Association between serum uric acid and prehypertension among US adults. J Hypertens. 2007;25:1583–9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Lee JAE, Kim YG, Choi YH, Huh W, Kim DJ, Oh HY. Serum uric acid is associated with microalbuminuria in prehypertension. Hypertension. 2006;47:962–7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Brand FN, McGee DL, Kannel WB, Stokes J, III, Castelli WP. Hyperuricemia as a risk factor of coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121:11–8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Loachimescu AG, Brennan DM, Hoar BM, Hazen SL, Hoogwerf BJ. Serum uric acid is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a preventive cardiology information system (PreCIS) database cohort study. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(2):623–30. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Ndrepepa G, Braun S, Haase HU, et al. Prognostic Value of Uric Acid in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2012 Feb 9; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


Gout & Food, Supplements, Herbs, Enzymes, Bacteria

Korbekandi, Hassan & Abedi, Daryoush & Maracy, Mohammad Reza & Jalali, Mohammad & Azarman, Nastaran & Iravani, Siavash. (2015). Evaluation of Probiotic Yoghurt Produced by Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology. 5. 37-44. [ResearchGate

Rosa D, Ferreira C, Fonseca A, Reis S, Dias M, Siqueira N, Silva L, Neves C, Oliveira L, Machado A,  Peluso M, Kefir reduces insulin resistance and inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, Journal Food & Function, 2016, VL 6, Is 8, The Royal Society of Chemistry, [RSOC]

Verce M, De Vuyst L, Weckx S. Shotgun Metagenomics of a Water Kefir Fermentation Ecosystem Reveals a Novel Oenococcus Species. Front Microbiol. 2019 Mar 13;10:479, [PubMed]

Laureys D, De Vuyst L. Water kefir as a promising low-sugar probiotic fermented beverage. Arch Public Health. 2014 Jun 6;72(Suppl 1), PMCID: PMC4092267, [PubMed]

Zheng Y, Lu Y, Wang J, Yang L, Pan C, Huang Y. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 22;8(7):e69868, Print in 2013. PubMed PMID: 23894554; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3718794, [PubMed]

Kim DH, Jeong D, Kim H, Seo KH. Modern perspectives on the health benefits of kefir in the next-generation sequencing era: Improvement of the host gut microbiota. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(11):1782-1793, Epub 2018 Feb 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 29336590, [PubMed]

Slattery C, Cotter PD, O'Toole PW. Analysis of Health Benefits Conferred by Lactobacillus Species from Kefir. Nutrients. 2019 Jun 1;11(6, Review. PubMed PMID: 31159409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6627492, [PubMed]

Erdogan FS, Ozarslan S, Guzel-Seydim ZB, Kök Taş T. The effect of kefir produced from natural kefir grains on the intestinal microbial populations and antioxidant capacities of Balb/c mice. Food Res Int. 2019 Jan;115:408-413, Epub 2018 Oct 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 30599959, [PubMed]

Velićanski AS, Cvetković DD, Markov SL, Šaponjac VT, Vulić JJ. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2014 Dec;52(4):420-429, [PubMed]

Gaggìa F, Baffoni L, Galiano M, Nielsen DS, Jakobsen RR, Castro-Mejía JL, Bosi S, Truzzi F, Musumeci F, Dinelli G, Di Gioia D. Kombucha Beverage from Green, Black and Rooibos Teas: A Comparative Study Looking at Microbiology, Chemistry and Antioxidant Activity. Nutrients. 2018 Dec 20;11(1), [PubMed]

Villarreal-Soto SA, Beaufort S, Bouajila J, Souchard JP, Taillandier P. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review. J Food Sci. 2018 Mar;83(3):580-588, [PubMed]

Julie M. Kapp, Walton Sumner, Kombucha: a systematic review of the empirical evidence of human health benefit, Annals of Epidemiology, Volume 30, 2019, Pages 66-70, ISSN 1047-2797, [ScienceDirect]

Jatuworapruk K, Srichairatanakool O, Sunjaijean S, Kasitanon N, Wangkaew S,  Louthrenoo W,  (2014). Effects of Green Tea Extract on Serum Uric Acid and Urate Clearance in Healthy Individuals. Journal of clinical rheumatology: practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases. 20. 310-313. 10.1097, [ResearchGate]

Zhang Y, Yang T, Zeng C, Wei J, Li H, Xiong YL, Yang Y, Ding X, Lei G. Is coffee consumption associated with a lower risk of hyperuricemia or gout? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 8;6(7):e009809, Erratum in BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 18;6(7):e009809corr1. PMID: 27401353; PMCID: PMC4947733. [PubMed]

Zhu C, Tai LL, Wan XC, Li DX, Zhao YQ, Xu Y. Comparative effects of green and black tea extracts on lowering serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):2123-2128. [PubMed]

Zhang Y, Cui Y, Li XA, Li LJ, Xie X, Huang YZ, Deng YH, Zeng C, Lei GH. Is tea consumption associated with the serum uric acid level, hyperuricemia or the risk of gout? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 Feb 28;18(1):95, [PubMed]

Pervin M, Unno K, Ohishi T, Tanabe H, Miyoshi N, Nakamura Y. Beneficial Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Neurodegenerative Diseases. Molecules. 2018 May 29;23(6):1297, [PubMed]

Suzuki Y, Miyoshi N, Isemura M. Health-promoting effects of green tea. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2012;88(3):88-101, [PubMed]

Chacko SM, Thambi PT, Kuttan R, Nishigaki I. Beneficial effects of green tea: a literature review. Chin Med. 2010 Apr 6;5:13, [PubMed]

Spencer P, Health Benefits of Green Tea, [WebMD]

Pérez-Cano FJ, Castell M. Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System. Nutrients. 2016 Oct 21;8(10):659, PMID: 27775647; PMCID: PMC5084045, [PubMed]

White AR, Randall C, Harding G, Paterson C. Patient consensus on mode of use of nettle sting for musculoskeletal pain. Complement Ther Med. 2011 Aug;19(4):179-86, Epub 2011 Jul 27, [PubMed]

Bakhshaee M, Mohammad Pour AH, Esmaeili M, Jabbari Azad F, Alipour Talesh G, Salehi M, Noorollahian Mohajer M. Efficacy of Supportive Therapy of Allergic Rhinitis by Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) root extract: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial. Iran J Pharm Res. 2017 Winter;16(Suppl):112-118. PMID: 29844782; PMCID: PMC5963652, [PubMed]

Johnson TA, Sohn J, Inman WD, Bjeldanes LF, Rayburn K. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders. Phytomedicine. 2013 Jan 15;20(2):143-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.09.016. Epub 2012 Oct 23. PMID: 23092723; PMCID: PMC3529973, [PubMed]

Nieper H, Lithium Articles, [BrewerScience]

Jung YM, Lee SH, Lee DS, You MJ, Chung IK, Cheon WH, Kwon YS, Lee YJ, Ku SK. Fermented garlic protects diabetic, obese mice when fed a high-fat diet by antioxidant effects. Nutr Res. 2011 May;31(5):387-96, 2011.04.005. [PubMed]

Kim HN, Kang SG, Roh YK, Choi MK, Song SW. Efficacy and safety of fermented garlic extract on hepatic function in adults with elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Aug;56(5):1993-2002, Epub 2016 Oct 14. Erratum in: Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jan 11, [PubMed]

Daliri EB, Kim SH, Park BJ, et al. Effects of different processing methods on the antioxidant and immune-stimulating abilities of garlic. Food Sci Nutr. 2019;7(4):1222–1229. Published 2019 Feb 28, [PubMed]

Basar S, Uhlenhut K, Högger P, Schöne F, Westendorf J. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) fruit. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):38-42,  [PubMed] PMID: 19548275.

Abu Bakar FI, Abu Bakar MF, Rahmat A, Abdullah N, Sabran SF, Endrini S. Anti-gout Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Mar 23;9:261, eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 29628890; [PubMed].

Dussossoy E, Brat P, Bony E, Boudard F, Poucheret P, Mertz C, Giaimis J, Michel A. Characterization, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Costa Rican noni juice (Morinda citrifolia L.). J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 7;133(1):108-15, Epub 2010 Sep 19. [PubMed] PMID: 20858541.

Motshakeri, Mahsa & Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah. (2014). Nutritional, phytochemical and commercial quality of Noni fruit; a multi-beneficial gift from nature. Review Paper. Trends in Food Science & Technology, [ScienceDirect]

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Hassan F. Al-Azzawie, Samah A.Abd, Effects of Crude Flavonoids from Ginger ( Zingiber officinale), on Serum Uric Acid Levels, Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats, ISSN 2320-5407, International Journal of Advanced Research (2015), Volume 3, Issue 10, 1033 – 1039, [ijar]

Al-Nahain, A., Jahan, R., & Rahmatullah, M. (2014). Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis, 2014, 159089, [NIH]

Enny Virda Yuniarti, Emyk Windartik, Amar Akbar, Effect Of Red Ginger Compress To Decrease Scale Of Pain Gout Arthritis Patients, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 6, ISSUE 10, OCTOBER 2017, ISSN 2277-8616, [ijstr]

Akram, 2009. Clinical evaluation of herbal medicine for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, M. Phil Thesis, Hamdard University, Karachi.

McMaster University. "Moderate consumption of fats, carbohydrates best for health, international study shows." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 August 2017, [SD

Li R, Yu K, Li C. Dietary factors and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(6):1344-1356, [Pubmed]

Zhang Y, Qiu H. Folate, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 Intake in Relation to Hyperuricemia. J Clin Med. 2018;7(8):210. Published 2018 Aug 11, [PubMed]

Álvarez-Lario B, Alonso-Valdivielso JL. [Hyperuricemia and gout; the role of diet]. Nutr Hosp. 2014 Apr 1;29(4):760-70, Review. Spanish, [PubMed] PMID: 24679016

Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 11;350(11):1093-103. PubMed PMID: 15014182, [Pubmed]

Beyl RN Jr, Hughes L, Morgan S. Update on Importance of Diet in Gout. Am J Med. 2016 Nov;129(11):1153-1158, Epub 2016 Jul 22. Review, [PubMed] PMID: 27452679

Nickolai B, Kiss C. [Nutritional therapy of gout]. Ther Umsch. 2016;73(3):153-8, Review. German. PubMed PMID: 27008448, [Pubmed]​

Welch A, Mulligan A, Bingham S, Khaw K, "Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables, and meat intakes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk population study", Br J Nutr. 2008 Jun;99(6):1335-43. Epub 2007 Nov 28, [Pubmed].

Duell M, Daily Mail, "Student, 20, died after taking regular doses of apple cider vinegar",  29 October 2019, [Daily Mail]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Unexplained Severe Illness Possibly Associated with Consumption of Kombucha Tea -- Iowa", 1995, December 08, 1995, []​

Goyal A, Sharma V, Upadhyay N, Gill S, Sihag M. Flax, and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food. J Food Sci Technol. 2014;51(9):1633–1653, [NIH]

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Stephens, W. Dolaeus upon the Cure of Gout by Milk-diet. Osborn and Longman, London, 1732.

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Löffler, M., Carrey, E. A., & Zameitat, E. (2016). Orotate (orotic acid): An essential and versatile molecule. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, 35(10-12), 566–577.doi:10.1080/15257770.2016.1147580, [NIH], [DOCKSCI]

Sook Choi, Han Sam Cha, Young Soon Lee, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic, Molecules 2014, 19, 16811-16823, [PDF]

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Gia-Buu Tran, Tan-Viet Pham, Ngoc-Nam Trinh, Black Garlic and Its Therapeutic Benefits, 

March 29th, 2019, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.85042, [Intechopen

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PEMFT, Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Field Therapy

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